The APOGEE-2 Survey of the Orion Star Forming Complex II: Six-dimensional structure

Kounkel, Marina; Covey, Kevin; Suarez, Genaro; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Hernandez, Jesus; Stassun, Keivan; Jaehnig, Karl O; Feigelson, Eric; Peña Ramírez, Karla; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Da Rio, Nicola; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Kim, J. Serena; Borissova, Jura; Fernández-Trincado, José G.; Burgasser, Adam; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, Olga; Pan, Kaike; Nitschelm, Christian
eprint arXiv:1805.04649


We present an analysis of spectrosopic and astrometric data from APOGEE-2 and Gaia DR2 to identify structures towards the Orion Complex. By applying a hierarchical clustering algorithm to the 6-dimensional stellar data, we identify spatially and/or kinematically distinct groups of young stellar objects with ages ranging from 1 to 12 Myr. We also investigate the star forming history within the Orion Complex, and identify peculiar sub-clusters. With this method we reconstruct the older populations in the regions that are presently largely devoid of molecular gas, such as Orion C (which includes the sigma Ori cluster), and Orion D (the population that traces Ori OB1a, OB1b, and Orion X). We report on the distances, kinematics, and ages of the groups within the Complex. There is no apparent foreground population in front of the Orion A. The Orion D groups is in the process of expanding. On the other hand, Orion B is still in the process of contraction. In lambda Ori the proper motions are consistent with a radial expansion due to an explosion from a supernova; the traceback age from the expansion exceeds the age of the youngest stars formed near the outer edges of the region, and their formation would have been triggered when they were half-way from the cluster center to their current positions. We also present a comparison between the parallax and proper motion solutions obtained by Gaia DR2, and those obtained towards star-forming regions by Very Long Baseline Array.