Spectral classification of B stars: The empirical sequence using SDSS-IV/APOGEE near-IR data

Ramírez-Preciado, Valeria G.;  Román-Lópes, Alexandre;  Román-Zuñiga, Carlos G.;  Hernandez, Jesús; García, Anibal;  Stassun, Keivan;  Stringfellow, Guy S.;  Kim, Jinyoung Serena
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 894, Issue 1, id.5 (2020).


We present a semi-empirical spectral classification scheme for normal B-type stars using near-infrared (NIR) spectra (1.5-1.7 μm) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE2)-N data release 14 (DR14) database. The main motivation for working with B-type stars is their importance in the evolution of young stellar clusters; however, we also take advantage of having a numerous sample (316 stars) of B-type star candidates in APOGEE2-N, for which we also have optical (3600-9100 Å) counterparts from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey. By first obtaining an accurate spectral classification of the sources using the LAMOST DR3 spectra and the canonical spectral classification scheme, we found a linear relation between optical spectral types and the equivalent widths of the hydrogen lines of the Brackett series in the APOGEE2-N NIR spectra. This relation extends smoothly from a similar relation for O and early B stars found by Roman-Lopes et al. This way, we obtain a catalog of B-type sources with features in both the optical and NIR and a classification scheme refined down to one spectral subclass.