Spectroscopic study of the extremely young O-type triple system Herschel 36 A in the Hourglass nebula - I. Orbital properties

Campillay, Abdo R.; Arias, Julia I.; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Maíz Apellániz, Jesús
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 484, Issue 2, p.2137-2147 (2019).


We present a detailed spectroscopic study of Herschel 36 A (H36A), the main stellar component of the massive multiple system Herschel 36 in the Hourglass nebula, based on high-resolution optical spectra obtained along an 11 yr span. The three stellar components present in the spectrum of H36A are separated by means of a spectral disentangling technique. Individual spectral classifications are improved, and high-precision orbital solutions for the inner and outer orbits are calculated. H36A is confirmed to be a hierarchical triple system composed of a close massive binary (Ab1 + Ab2, O9.5 V + B0.7 V) in wide orbit around a third O-type star (Aa, O7.5 Vz). The inner-pair orbit is characterized by a period of 1.54157 ± 0.00006 d, and semi-amplitudes of 181.2 ± 0.7 and 295.4 ± 1.7 km s-1. The outer orbit has a period of 492.81 ± 0.69 d, and semi-amplitudes of 62.0 ± 0.6 and 42.4 ± 0.8 km s-1. The inner and outer orbits are not coplanar, having a relative inclination of at least 20°. Dynamical minimum masses of 20.6 ± 0.8 M\odot, 18.7 ± 1.1 M\odot, and 11.5 ± 1.1 M\odot are derived for the Aa, Ab1, and Ab2 components, respectively, in reasonable agreement with the theoretical calibrations.