Constraints on the dark mass distribution surrounding Sgr A*: simple $\chi^2$ analysis for the redshift of photons from orbiting stars

Takamori, Yohsuke ; Nishiyama, Shogo ; Ohgami, Takayuki ; Saida, Hiromi ; Saitou, Rio ; Takahashi, Masaaki
arXiv e-prints


Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is the central supermassive black hole with the mass $\sim 4\times 10^6 M_{\odot}$ in the Milky Way and stars are orbiting around it. In May 2018, one of the nearest stars to Sgr A* named S0-2/S2 experienced the pericenter passage. The redshift of photons from S0-2 had varied from $4000\>{\rm km\>s^{-1}}$ to $-2000\>{\rm km\>s^{-1}}$ during the pericenter passage, which is within $0.5\>{\rm yr}$. In this paper, we show that this steep variation of the redshift gives a strong constraint on a dark mass distribution inside the orbit of S0-2. By applying a simple $\chi^2$ analysis to the observed redshift, we can easily distinguish between the two models, the point mass model and the point mass plus an extended mass model without the best-fitting parameter search. Our redshift data during the pericenter passage in 2018 with Subaru/IRCS bound the amount of the extended mass inside the orbit of S0-2 less than $0.5\,\%$ ($\sim 2 \times 10^4 M_\odot$) of the mass of Sgr A*. This constraint obtained by our simple analysis is comparable to previous works with the best-fitting parameter search to the motion of S0-2 including the effect of the extended mass. We consider both the power-law and the Plummer models for the dark mass distribution model, but the significant difference between these results is not found.