The Gaia-ESO Survey: Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations

Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Matteucci, F.; Spitoni, E.; Schultheis, M.; Hayden, M.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Donati, P.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.
eprint arXiv:1704.03325


Abridged: We used the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey to characterize the bulge chemistry, spatial distribution, kinematics, and to compare it chemically with the thin and thick disks. The sample consist on ~2500 red clump stars in 11 bulge fields ($-10^\circ\leq l\leq+8^\circ$ and $-10^\circ\leq b\leq-4^\circ$), and a set of ~6300 disk stars selected for comparison. The bulge MDF is confirmed to be bimodal across the whole sampled area, with metal-poor stars dominating at high latitudes. The metal-rich stars exhibit bar-like kinematics and display a bimodality in their magnitude distribution, a feature which is tightly associated with the X-shape bulge. They overlap with the metal-rich end of the thin disk sequence in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. Metal-poor bulge stars have a more isotropic hot kinematics and do not participate in the X-shape bulge. With similar Mg-enhancement levels, the position of the metal-poor bulge sequence "knee" is observed at [Fe/H]$_{knee}=-0.37\pm0.09$, being 0.06 dex higher than that of the thick disk. It suggests a higher SFR for the bulge than for the thick disk. Finally, we present a chemical evolution model that suitably fits the whole bulge sequence by assuming a fast ($<1$ Gyr) intense burst of stellar formation at early epochs. We associate metal-rich stars with the B/P bulge formed from the secular evolution of the early thin disk. On the other hand, the metal-poor subpopulation might be the product of an early prompt dissipative collapse dominated by massive stars. Nevertheless, our results do not allow us to firmly rule out the possibility that these stars come from the secular evolution of the early thick disk. This is the first time that an analysis of the bulge MDF and $\alpha$-abundances has been performed in a large area on the basis of a homogeneous, fully spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution, high S/N data.