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High-resolution Infrared Spectrograph for Exoplanet Characterization with the Keck and Thirty Meter Telescopes

Mawet, Dimitri; Fitzgerald, Michael; Konopacky, Quinn; Beichman, Charles; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Dekany, Richard; Hover, David; Chisholm, Eric; Ciardi, David; Artigau, Etienne; Banyal, Ravinder; Beatty, Thomas; Benneke, Bjorn; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Burgasser, Adam; Canalizo, Gabriela; Chen, Guo; Do, Tuan; Doppmann, Greg; Doyon, Rene Dressing, Courtney; Fang, Min; Greene, Thomas; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Howard, Andrew; Kane, Stephen; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza; Knutson, Heather; Kotani, Takayuki; Lafreniere, David; Liu, Chao; Nishiyama, Shogo; Pandey, Gajendra; Plavchan, Peter; Prato, Lisa; Rajaguru, S. P.; Robertson, Paul; Salyk, Colette; Sato, Bunei; Schlawin, Everett; Sengupta, Sujan; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Skidmore, Warren; Tamura, Motohide; Terada, Hiroshi; Vasisht, Gautam; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Hui
eprint arXiv:1908.03623
08/2019

ABSTRACT

HISPEC (High-resolution Infrared Spectrograph for Exoplanet Characterization) is a proposed diffraction-limited spectrograph for the W.M. Keck Observatory, and a pathfinder for the MODHIS facility project (Multi-Object Diffraction-limited High-resolution Infrared Spectrograph) on the Thirty Meter Telescope. HISPEC/MODHIS builds on diffraction-limited spectrograph designs which rely on adaptively corrected single-mode fiber feeds. Seeing-limited high-resolution spectrographs, by virtue of the conservation of beam etendue, grow in volume following a D^3 power law (D is the telescope diameter), and are subject to daunting challenges associated with their large size. Diffraction-limited spectrographs fed by single mode fibers are decoupled from the telescope input, and are orders of magnitude more compact and have intrinsically stable line spread functions. Their efficiency is directly proportional to the performance of the adaptive optics (AO) system. AO technologies have matured rapidly over the past two decades and are baselined for future extremely large telescopes. HISPEC/MODHIS will take R>100,000 spectra of a few objects in a 10" field-of-view sampled at the diffraction limit (~10-50 mas), simultaneously from 0.95 to 2.4 microns (y-K). The scientific scope ranges from exoplanet infrared precision radial velocities, spectroscopy of transiting, close-in, and directly imaged exoplanets (atmospheric composition and dynamics, RM effect, spin measurements, Doppler imaging), brown dwarf characterization, stellar physics/chemistry, proto-planetary disk kinematics/composition, Solar system, extragalactic science, and cosmology. HISPEC/MODHIS features a compact, cost-effective design optimized to fully exploit the existing Keck-AO and future TMT-NFIRAOS infrastructures and boost the scientific reach of Keck Observatory and TMT soon after first light.