Massive Stars in the SDSS-IV/APOGEE-2 Survey. II. OB-stars in the W345 Complexes

Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Tapia, Mauricio; Hernández, Jesús; Ramírez-Preciado, Valeria; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Minniti, Dante; Covey, Kevin R.; Kounkel, Marina; Suárez, Genaro; Borissova, Jura; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, Olga; Trujillo, Juan David
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 873, Issue 1, article id. 66, 10 pp. (2019).


In this work, we have applied a semi-empirical spectral classification method for OB-stars using the APOGEE spectrograph to a sample of candidates in the W3–W4–W5 (W345) complexes. These massive star-forming regions span over 200 pc across the Perseus arm and have a notorious population of massive stars, from which a large fraction are members of various embedded and young open clusters. From 288 APOGEE spectra showing H-band spectral features typical of O- and B-type sources, 46 probably correspond to previously unknown O-type stars. Therefore, we confirm that Br11–Br13 together with He II λ16923 (7–12) and He II λ15723 (7–13) lines contained in the APOGEE spectral bands are useful in providing spectral classification down to one spectral sub-class for massive stars in regions as distant as d ≈ 2 kpc. The large number of newly found O-type stars as well as the numerous intermediate-mass population confirm that W345 is a very efficient massive star factory, with an integral stellar population probably amounting several thousand solar masses.